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FACTOKS IN INDUSTKIAL COMPETITION.                    423
rails and half bullheads, so that each order for replaceals is half what it should he. The item of roll changes for small lots of material is very important to the manufacturer, and the railroad must pay the bill in the long run. It must be borne in mind that England cannot extend her domain, and it would be of doubtful expediency to build a counterpart of one of our American mills, which could alone make all the rails now produced in Great Britain. The two-high mill is better for small products and numerous roll changes, and has, therefore, been retained in England and on the Continent.
TABLE XXI-A. Miles of Kailway in Operation in 1902.
United States............
Germany.................
Russia....................
France....................
Austria-Hungary........
Great Britain and Ireland
66 per cent, of tie total.
207,807 33,798 33,073
22,448
Canada...................................................           19,062
Italy.........................'.............................            9,960
Spain.....................................................            8,601
Sweden..................................................            7,692
Belgium..................................................            4,234
Europe except above....................................          14,563
Asia......................................................          46,293
Other parts of the world___..............,............
Total.............................................'....         533,65
This matter of small orders will be better understood by comparison of. the mileage of railroads in the different countries, as shown in Table XXI-A. The United States has 40 per cent, of all the railroads in the world, Germany next with less than 7 per cent., and if we omit those nations that make their own rails and take all the rest of the world, including Canada, the total "markets of the world" do not include as many miles of track as are laid within our borders. Thus if we can assume that Germany, which ranks next to the United States in length of track, should monopolize the rail trade of -the world with the exception of the United States, Eussia, France, Austria, Great Britain and Belgium, each of which is self-supporting, she would not have as much tributary track as .stretches out before the doors of American steel works. These reasons have influenced the development of rolling mills all over